African Americans in Science and Technology
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
A husband-and-wife team of educational psychologists, Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth B. Clark
studied the relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in black schoolchildren. Their research was conducted at the
Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem, where they found that African American children as young as three were aware of
their race and had a negative self image because of it. Most notably, the Clarks’ studies were used in the landmark Supreme
Court case Brown v. Board of Education (1954). By using science to prove segregation’s negative impact on children,
the Clarks played a major part in changing the United States educational system.