Oxford AASC: Photo Essay

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PHOTO ESSAY

African Americans in Science and Technology

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Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth B. Clark, 1966.

Courtesy of the Library of Congress

A husband-and-wife team of educational psychologists, Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth B. Clark studied the relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in black schoolchildren. Their research was conducted at the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem, where they found that African American children as young as three were aware of their race and had a negative self image because of it. Most notably, the Clarks’ studies were used in the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education (1954). By using science to prove segregation’s negative impact on children, the Clarks played a major part in changing the United States educational system.

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