Oxford AASC: Photo Essay

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PHOTO ESSAY

Black Nationalism and Independence Movements

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Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, 1964

Courtesy of Library of Congress

Malcolm X, arguably the best-known figure in the history of black separatist movements, is shown here with Martin Luther King Jr. on 26 March 1964, just a few weeks after Malcolm had broken ties with the Nation of Islam. Malcolm and King greatly differed in their approaches to achieving a better life for black people in the United States. X advocated black separatism and self defense from racial violence inflicted by white people. King adhered to a nonviolent approach to achieving greater racial equality through racial integration. Malcolm X's highly influential and highly contested book The Autobiography of Malcolm X (written with Alex Haley) was published in 1965 after his death and served as a canonical text for the Black Power movement

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