Black Nationalism and Independence Movements
One of Marcus's Garvey and UNIA's major endeavors was the Black Star Line, Inc., which greatly helped the UNIA's efforts but was ultimately Garvey's downfall in the United States. The Black Star Line was a steamboat enterprise that consisted of three aging, overpriced steamships that shuttled cargo and passengers to and from Africa. Despite the state of the ships the Black Star Line garnered a great deal of interest and helped fund many of the UNIA expenses. The steamship line also served Garvey's repatriation efforts by literally taking African American's back to Africa. The Black Star Line shut down operations in 1921 due to poor management and in 1923 Garvey was found guilty of defrauding Black Star Line shareholders and imprisoned. Upon release Garvey was deported to Jamaica and never returned to the Unites States.