Black Nationalism and Independence Movements
In the late nineteenth century Pan-Africanists such as Henry McNeal Turner, Alexander Crummell, and Edward Wilmot Blyden continued to encourage the emigration of blacks to West Africa. Henry McNeal Turner was one of the major proponents of the Back-to-Africa movements at that time and he was especially interested in having Africans Americans return to Africa as Christian missionaries. Turner encouraged African Americans to relocate to Sierra Leone and Liberia, experimental colonies formed as destinations for former slaves and free blacks. For Turner, repatriation served several ends. Not only could Africans Americans spread Christian doctrine and "civilize" Africa but emigration would also remove them from political and economic difficulties in the United States. In 1876 Turner was elected honorary vice president of the controversial American Colonization Society.